(1884) by Arrian , translated by Edward James Chinnock The Anabasis of Alexander At the time of his death he musthave been about fifty years of age. At any rate they have deserted us, and sought refuge withthem. Anabasis (/ ə ˈ n æ b ə s ɪ s /; Greek: Ἀνάβασις; an "expedition up from") is the most famous book of the Ancient Greek professional soldier and writer Xenophon. When all was duly ordered the move began, the young men pioneeringthem, and keeping the river on their left. the clearness and distinctness with which he describes all military That is howXenophon came to join the expedition, deceived indeed, though not byProxenus, who was equally in the dark with the rest of the Hellenes,not counting Clearchus, as to the intended attack upon the king. Four lines from the bottom, for Anab. speeches, but wherever he does he shows a profound knowledge of man; As though they were truly quit ofthem for ever, they laid their heads to rest in sweet content. Meanwhile the ArgiveArchagoras arrived, in full flight, with the announcement that theyhad been dislodged from the first ridge, and that Cephisodorus andAmphicrates were slain, with a number of others besides, all in factwho had not jumped down the crags and so reached the rearguard. Thereupon the Carduchians abandoned their dwelling places, and withtheir wives and children fled to the mountains; so there was plenty ofprovisions to be got for the mere trouble of taking, and thehomesteads too were well supplied with a copious store of bronzevessels and utensils which the Hellenes kept their hands off,abstaining at the same time from all pursuit of the folk themselves,gently handling them, in hopes that the Carduchians might be willingto give them friendly passage through their country, since they toowere enemies of the king: only they helped themselves to suchprovisions as fell in their way, which indeed was a sheer necessity.But the Carduchians neither gave ear, when they called to them, norshowed any other friendly sign; and now, as the last of the Hellenesdescended into the villages from the pass, they were already in thedark, since, owing to the narrowness of the road, the whole day hadbeen spent in the ascent and descent. "and the men behind to pass him by, as he could but ill keep up the pace.". . But Xenophon had adream. It was now mid-day, and the enemy was not yet in sight; but with the approach of afternoon was seen dust like a white cloud, and after a considerable interval a black pall as it were spread far and high above the plain. These, I take it, were the characteristic acts of a man whoseaffections are set on warfare. Andyou should pass a resolution that, in case of insubordination, any one 31who stands by is to aid the officer in chastising the offender. The inflorescences are elongated or condensed spikes. [2] We learn from Diodorus Siculus, xiv. But partly too he feared it, for evidently it had comefrom Zeus the king. Natural affection he clearly entertainedfor nobody. 980 Plutarch (Alex., 28) attributes the same motive to Alexander Meanwhilethe soothsayers were slaying a victim over the river, and the enemywere letting fly their arrows and slingstones; but as yet they wereout of range. It is obvious to Xenophon that the dream is sent from Heaven. To their safe keeping we consigned the friendshipwhich we solemnly contracted. 37). [4] I.e. A good solder! Search HathiTrust. His fee was 100 minae. But the rest visited the ranks, and wherever ageneral was left, they summoned the general; where he was gone, thelieutenant-general; and where again the captain alone was left, thecaptain. In this way and to this extent he knewhow to rule; but to play a subordinate part himself he had no greattaste; so, at any rate, it was said. 490. And nowit was that the Hellenes discovered the defect of marching in a squarewith an enemy following. But with the morrow's dawn they espied horsemen at a certain pointacross the river, armed cap-a-pie, as if they meant to dispute thepassage. the wreath, an action which the soldiers would perform symbolically, if Grote is right in his interpretation of the passage, "Hist. But if youimagine that you, on your side, have any better reason to mistrust theking and me, than we you, listen to me in turn, and I will undeceiveyou. Please informme, then, as to what you propose, regarding me as your friend andwell-wisher, anxious only to pursue his march in your company." Historia, ii. Butas soon as they caught sight of one another, the trumpet sounded, andwith a loud cheer they rushed upon the fellows, who did not wait theircoming, but left the road and made off; with the loss of only a fewlives however, so nimble were they. 541: "Even as she spake, and Telemachus sneezed loudly, and around the roof rung wondrously. "May be, however, you are in good heart about the fighting, butannoyed to think that Tissaphernes will not guide us any more, andthat the king will not furnish us with a market any longer. . "Good," replied Clearchus. Accordingly, in any strait, this was the man whom the soldierswere eager to obey, and they would have no other in his place. Butler & Tanner, The Selwood Printing Works, Frome, and London. This is the testimony of all who knewhim intimately. 983 Cf. "He began his speech as follows: "Cleanor has spoken of the perjury and 8faithlessness of the barbarians, and you yourselves know them only toowell, I fancy. The order passed to his own men was: "Wait tillyou are within sling-shot, and the shield rattles, then sound thepaean and charge the enemy. For without leaders nothing good ornoble, to put it concisely, was ever wrought anywhere; and in militarymatters this is absolutely true; for if discipline is held to be ofsaving virtue, the want of it has been the ruin of many ere now. Available Indexes Full-text Catalog. I know that the Mysians are a cause of troubleto you, and I flatter myself that with my present force I could renderthem humbly obedient to you. "If any one has any better plan, we need not adopt mine; but if not,suppose Cheirisophus takes the lead, as he is a Lacedaemonian, and thetwo eldest generals take in charge the two wings respectively, whilstTimasion and I, the two youngest, will for the present guard the rear. For myself,if you choose to start forwards on this quest, I will follow; or, ifyou bid me lead you, my age shall be no excuse to stand between me andyour orders. For the Rhodians could reach further than the Persian 16slingers, or, indeed, than most of the bowmen. Advice Rejected by the Persian Generals. Thus the distance between the two armies grewto be so great, that the next day the enemy did not appear at all, noryet on the third day; but on the fourth the barbarians had pushed onby a forced night march and occupied a commanding position on theright, where the Hellenes had to pass. 982 Xenophon (Cyropaedia, vii. Surely, just because they are friends ofboth parites, they will try to give us the best advice for you and forus.". When it is open to him to enjoy peacewith honour, no shame, no injury attached, still he prefers war; whenhe may live at home at ease, he insists on toil, if only it may end infighting; when it is given to him to keep his riches without risk, hewould rather lessen his fortune by the pastime of battle. Xenophon admitted that they were right inblaming him: no better proof of that was wanted than the result. It was clear that there was something or otherhappening, but there was no time to go to the front and discover thecause of the hurry. Back to Full BooksFull Books or where blows are needed, how are we to fight to the bestadvantage? The district was named Western Armenia. By the side of this city there was a stone pyramid inbreadth a hundred feet, and in height two hundred feet; in it weremany of the barbarians who had fled for refuge from the neighbouringvillages. When they had breakfasted and the march recommenced, the generalsplanted themselves a little to one side in a narrow place, and whenthey found any of the aforesaid slaves or other property stillretained, they confiscated them. Then turning to the officers: "Andnow," said he, "let us waste no time; retire at once, I beg you, andchoose leaders where you need them. 434 B; Aelian (Varia Historia, iii. If you like, stay in command of the army, and I will go; or, ifyou prefer, do you go to the mountain, and I will stay here." Xenophon having read the letter, consulted Socrates the Athenian,whether he should accept or refuse the invitation. To do so, they made six lochi, ordivisions of a hundred men apiece, each of which had its own set ofcaptains and under-officers in command of half and quarter companies. See "Hist. He seldom introduces opinion of Photius (p. 73; comp. x. The other day, though you had not tested them, andbefore your eyes lay their immeasurable host, you had the heart to goagainst them with the spirit of your fathers. I have come to you under a conviction that such 6misunderstandings may best be put a stop to by personal intercourse,and I wish to instruct you plainly that you are wrong in mistrustingus. victoribus; et foeda supplicia, et inter vinum et epula, caedes After that, we will there summon a general meetingof the soldiers. Indeed, heshowed a more delicate regard for his soldiers than his subordinatesfor him, and he was indisputably more apprehensive of incurring theirhatred than they were of losing their fidelity. Later it became a province of the Sassanid kingdom, and as such was in 297 A.D. handed over among the regiones transtigritanae to the Roman empire, but in 364 was again ceded to Persia. It was about four furlongs'march to the crossing, and as they moved along the bank, the squadronsof cavalry kept pace with them on the opposite side. He contrived to secure the obedience ofhis solders by making himself an accomplice in their misdeeds, and thefluency with which he vaunted his own capacity and readiness forenormous guilt was a sufficient title to be honoured and courted bythem. Separated from Hellas by more than a thousand miles, they hadnot even a guide to point the way. [6] I.e., in practising, in order to get the maximum range they let fly the arrows, not horizontally, but up into the air. Arrian reckoned Libya, or Africa, as a part of The generals accordingly, having recognsiedthe defect, set about curing it. a general toundertake the work? Now, I am told there are somesplendid villages not more than two miles and a half distant. At presentthe enemy shoot and sling beyond our range, so that our Cretan archersare no match for them; our hand-throwers cannot reach as far; and whenwe pursue, it is not possible to push the pursuit to any greatdistance from the main body, and within the short distance nofoot-soldier, however fleet of foot, could overtake anotherfoot-soldier who has a bow-shot the start of him. Impassable rivers lay athwart theirhomeward route, and hemmed them in. Here were they at theking's gates, and on every side environing them were many hostilecities and tribes of men. Available Indexes Full-text Catalog. thatwe were not to fire the king's country, they are now themselvesdoing--setting fire to it as if it were not their own. Description. Thiswas a certain Apollonides there present, who spoke in the Boeotiandialect. Thereupon he got up, and called together first Proxenus's officers;and when they were met, he said: "Sleep, sirs, I cannot, nor can you,I fancy, nor lie here longer, when I see in what straits we are. Anabasis, Book 4 Xenophon Full view - 1883. The next day was a day of inaction: they halted and took in supplies,as there was much corn in the villages; but on the day following, themarch was continued through the plain (of the Tigris), andTissaphernes still hung on their skirts with his skirmishers. --"Ileave it to you," Cheirisophus answered, "to choose which you likebest." After him Xenophon arose; he was arrayed for war in his bravestapparel[1]: "For," said he to himself, "if the gods grant victory, thefinest attire will match with victory best; or if I must needs die,then for one who has aspired to the noblest, it is well there shouldbe some outward correspondence between his expectation and his end. Some think "the wall of Media" should be "Medea's wall," constructed in the period of Queen Nitocris, B.C. In fact we, on our stout shanks,are better mounted than those cavalry fellows; there they hang on totheir horses' necks in mortal dread, not only of us, but of fallingoff; while we, well planted upon earth, can deal far heavier blows toour assailants, and aim more steadily at who we will. of Greece," vol. To sustain a running fightwith an enemy constantly attacking was one thing; to keep him at arm'slength from a fixed base of action another: and the difference wasmuch in their favour. historical critic. The name is said to mean "citadel," and is given to various Greek cities (of which several occur in Xenophon). There the enemypreferred not to wait, but fled towards the ravine. Sir W. Raleigh (Hist. So fared the foe and so fell back; but the Hellenes, continuing theirmarch in safety for the rest of that day, reached the river Tigris.Here they came upon a large deserted city, the name of which wasLarissa[1]: a place inhabited by the Medes in days of old; the breadthof its walls was twenty-five feet, and the height of them a hundred,and the circuit of the whole two parasangs. But I will go further andstate to you the reasons of my confidence, that you on your side willdesire our friendship. As soon as they had halted within earshot,Ariaeus said: "Hellenes, Clearchus being shown to have committedperjury and to have broken the truce, has suffered the penalty, and heis dead; but Proxenus and Menon, in return for having giveninformation of his treachery, are in high esteem and honour. Therearguard of the Hellenes suffered for a while severely without beingable to retaliate, for the Cretans had a shorter range than thePersians, and at the same time, being light-armed troops, they laycooped up within the ranks of the heavy infantry, while the javelinmen again did not shoot far enough to reach the enemy's slingers. The enemy, seeing Cheirisophus's detachment easilycrossing the stream, and Xenophon's men racing back, were seized withthe fear of being intercepted, and fled at full speed in the directionof the road which emerges from the stream. Thegods, who full surely will be on our side, seeing it is our enemieswho have taken their names falsely; whilst we, with much to lure us,yet for our oath's sake, and the gods who were our witnesses, sternlyheld aloof. Aristobulus, which two he chiefly followed, Diodotus of Erythrae, From the moment that he led them tovictory, the elements which went to make his soldiers efficient werenumerous enough. To the credit, be it said, of both,no one ever derided either as cowardly in war: no one ever had a faultto find with either on the score of friendship. Arrian, iv. The advance into thecountry of the Carduchians was conducted with a view partly tosecrecy, and partly to speed, so as to effect their entrybefore the enemy could occupy the passes.]. Then,though the majority were in apprehension of the journey, which was notat all to their minds, yet, for very shame of one another and Cyrus,they continued to follow him, and with the rest went Xenophon. Then it was resolved to summon the officers of the light infantry andsome of those of the heavy infantry, and to acquaint them with thestate of affairs, and ask them whether any of them were minded todistinguish themselves, and would step forward as volunteers on anexpedition. Or if any one stood aloof from him, he set it down as ameritorious act of kindness on his part that during their intercoursehe had not robbed him of existence. the conduct of battles and sieges. Surely it belongs to people altogether without resources,who are helplessly struggling in the toils of fate, and are villainsto boot, to seek accomplishment of their desires by perjury to heavenand faithlessness to their fellows. Still, from the spot in question there was anapproach to the enemy, who were seated on the pass before mentioned. There and then the barbarians turned and fled as best they might, and 1the Hellenes held the summit, while the troops with Tissaphernes andAriaeus turned aside and disappeared by another road. it chanced, was already there, but Cyrus he must needs send for from. The half company is technically called a pentecostys, and a quarter company an enomoty, and the officers in charge of them respectively penteconter and enomotarch. 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